As I discussed on Monday, I believe the fundamental underlying characteristic of intelligence is the ability to perceive and discover patterns, but I want to go a bit deeper on the resulting layering of abstractions that result from this. We all use many layers of abstractions every day.
The first, obvious layer of abstractions is on top of the underlying reality of fundamental particles (electrons and quarks and leptons etc). This lets our brain recognize physical materials like water, plastic, hair, wood, metal, etc. These elements are just abstractions; the same underlying particles could, in fact be arranged into totally different materials, or even be plasma. Arguably this isn’t a mental abstraction so much as one forced on us by the methods we have with which to observe the world, but the net result is the same.
On top of this abstraction of materials, we have an abstraction of objects. Wood formed in a particular pattern isn’t just wood, but also forms a table, or a chair, or a door, or any of another hundred things. A particular quantity of water in a particular location isn’t just water; it’s a lake, or a river, or an ocean. We could describe what I’m typing on right now as just a complex combination of plastic, metal (mostly silicon) and various other minerals, but typically we just abstract away that detail and call it a computer keyboard.
And there are yet even more layers of abstractions. There are abstractions we impose explicitly when laying out the rules of a sport or a game, and there are abstractions we impose implicitly when laying out the rules of behaviour in polite society. There are even, perhaps, abstractions we construct of each other. The ideas of “village idiot”, or “class nerd” are themselves abstractions on the social roles we play, and can have substantial impacts on how we socialize.
Abstractions are all around us, layer upon layer, whether we acknowledge them or not.