I now take a not-so-brief detour to lay out a theory of brain/mind, from a roughly evolutionary point of view, that will lay the foundation for my interrupted discussion of self-hood and identity. I tied in several related problems when working this out, in no particular order:
- The brain is massively complex; given an understanding of evolution, what is at least one potential path for this complexity to grow while still being adaptively useful at every step?
- “Strong” Artificial Intelligence as a field has failed again and again with various approaches, why?
- All the questions of philosophy of identity I mentioned in my previous post.
- Given a roughly physicalist answer to the mind-body problem (which I guess I’ve implied a few times but never really spelled out), how do you explain the experiential nature of consciousness?
Observant readers may note that I briefly touched this subject once before. What follows here is a much longer, more complex exposition but follows the same basic ideas; I’ve tweaked a few things and filled in a lot more blanks, but the broad approach is roughly the same.
Let’s start with the so-called “lizard hindbrain”, capable only of immediate, instinctual reactions to sensory input. This include stuff like automatically pulling away your hand when you touch something hot. AI research has long been able to trivially replicate this, it’s a pretty simple mapping of inputs to reactions. Not a whole lot to see here, a very basic and (importantly) mechanical process. Even the most ardent dualists would have trouble arguing that creatures with only this kind of brain have something special going on inside. This lizard hindbrain is a good candidate for our “initial evolutionary step”; all it takes is a simple cluster of nerve fibres and voila.
The next step isn’t so much a discrete step as an increase, specifically in the complexity of inputs recognized. While it’s easy to understand and emulate a rule matching “pain”, it’s much harder to understand and emulate a rule matching “the sight of another animal”. In fact it is this (apparently) simple step where a lot of hard AI falls down, because the pattern matching required to turn raw sense data into “tokens” (objects etc.) is incredibly difficult, and without these tokens the rest of the process of consciousness doesn’t really have a foundation. Trying to build a decision-making model without tokenized sense input seems to me a bit like trying to build an airplane out of cheese: you just don’t have the right parts to work with.
So now we have a nerve cluster that recognizes non-trivial patterns in sense input and triggers physical reactions. While this is something that AI has trouble with, it’s still trivially a mechanical process, just a very complex one. The next step is perhaps less obviously mechanical, but this post is long enough, so you’ll just have to wait for it 🙂